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Are psychotherapeutic effects on family caregivers of people with dementia sustainable? Two-year long-term effects of a telephone-based cognitive behavioral intervention

Contact Information

Keywords

Long-term evaluation; cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT); dementia; family caregiving; telephone intervention.

Abstract

Objectives: Evaluation of long-term effects of an individualized short-term telephone intervention (seven sessions), based on a comprehensive cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) approach. The study goal was to evaluate the maintenance of intervention effects regarding well-being, quality of life, and health at two years post treatment. Method: Participants (n = 105) were (partly) randomized after baseline assessment in a two-arm study (intervention, control group/usual care). Depressive symptoms were assessed with the German version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Caregivers' physical complaints were measured with the Gießener Beschwerdebogen (GBB-24), and quality of life with the World Health Organization quality of life -BREF (WHOQOL-BREF). Emotional well-being and perceived health status were assessed using thermometer scaling. Data were analyzed by intention-to-treat analyses, including for those who terminated the intervention prematurely but still delivered data, using ANCOVAs. Results: Long-term intervention effects were found for emotional well-being (p = 0.019). For the subgroup of caregivers who were still caring at home at follow-up, the intervention led to an increased health status (p = 0.023), fewer bodily complaints (global measure p= 0.014, rheumatic pain p = 0.027, heart trouble p = 0.042), and a higher quality of life (overall p = 0.044 and subscale environment p = 0.030). Conclusion: The short-term CBT intervention via telephone showed long-term effects two years after treatment on emotional well-being, health status, bodily complaints, and quality of life.

Citation

Wilz, G., Meichsner, F., & Soellner, R. (2017). Are psychotherapeutic effects on family caregivers of people with dementia sustainable? Two-year long-term effects of a telephone-based cognitive behavioral intervention. Aging & mental health, 21(7), 774–781. https://doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2016.1156646

DOI

10.1080/13607863.2016.1156646

Model

Human

Conent Area

Gabriele Wilz

EWB-Related Construct

(2) life satisfaction;
(4) quality of life
(5) sense of meaning

Study Design

Species or Study Population

(5) RCT

Sex (%Female)

82.90%

Age (Mean, SD)

61.4, 9.41

Younger Controls?

No

Longitudinal Data?

Yes

Sample Size

105

Interventions

cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)

Ethnicity (%white)

not stated (Germany)

Inclusion Criteria

At baseline, all caregivers cared for their relatives at home, had the main responsibility for caregiving, did not receive psychotherapy, and showed no cognitive impairment and no acute mental and/or physical illness.
Patients had to have a diagnosis of Dementia (diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders [DSM-5] criteria, American Psychiatric Association 2013) and a Global Deterioration Score > 3. Caregivers were not included if patients attended day care for more than three days per week.

Exclusion Criteria

N/A

EWB Measures

World Health Organization quality of life -BREF (WHOQOL-BREF)

Non-EWB Behavioral
Measures

Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)
Gießener Beschwerdebogen (GBB-24)

Physiological Measures

N/A

Brain IMaging Modality

Brain IMaging Paradigm

N/A

Brain Region/Circuit

N/A

Biological Measures

N/A

Other Neural Measures

Data Availability?

No

Data Avalability Details

N/A

Diagnostic Measures

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