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Cognitive, emotional, and social benefits of regular musical activities in early dementia: randomized controlled study

Contact Information


Teppo Särkämö,

Alzheimer’s disease, Coaching, Cognition, Memory, Depression


Purpose of the study: During aging, musical activities can help maintain physical and mental health and cognitive abilities, but their rehabilitative use has not been systematically explored in persons with dementia (PWDs). Our aim was to determine the efficacy of a novel music intervention based on coaching the caregivers of PWDs to use either singing or music listening regularly as a part of everyday care. Design and methods: Eighty-nine PWD-caregiver dyads were randomized to a 10-week singing coaching group (n = 30), a 10-week music listening coaching group (n = 29), or a usual care control group (n = 30). The coaching sessions consisted primarily of singing/listening familiar songs coupled occasionally with vocal exercises and rhythmic movements (singing group) and reminiscence and discussions (music listening group). In addition, the intervention included regular musical exercises at home. All PWDs underwent an extensive neuropsychological assessment, which included cognitive tests, as well as mood and quality of life (QOL) scales, before and after the intervention period and 6 months later. In addition, the psychological well-being of family members was repeatedly assessed with questionnaires. Results: Compared with usual care, both singing and music listening improved mood, orientation, and remote episodic memory and to a lesser extent, also attention and executive function and general cognition. Singing also enhanced short-term and working memory and caregiver well-being, whereas music listening had a positive effect on QOL. Implications: Regular musical leisure activities can have long-term cognitive, emotional, and social benefits in mild/moderate dementia and could therefore be utilized in dementia care and rehabilitation.


Särkämö, T., Tervaniemi, M., Laitinen, S., Numminen, A., Kurki, M., Johnson, J. K., & Rantanen, P. (2013). Cognitive, emotional, and social benefits of regular musical activities in early dementia: Randomized Controlled Study. The Gerontologist, 54(4), 634–650.





Conent Area

Teppo Särkämö

EWB-Related Construct

(3) positive affect
(4) Quality of Life

Study Design

Species or Study Population

(5) RCT

Sex (%Female)


Age (Mean, SD)

Singing: 78.5 (10.4)
Music listening: 79.4 (10.1)
Control 78.4 (11.6)

Younger Controls?


Longitudinal Data?


Sample Size



10-week singing coaching
10-week music listening

Ethnicity (%white)

not stated (Finland)

Inclusion Criteria

(1) mild–moderate dementia (Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR] score 0.5–2
(2) no prior severe psychiatric illness or substance abuse
(3) no changes in psychotropic medication during the last 3 months
(4) speak Finnish
(5) physically and cognitively able to take part in the intervention and undergo the neuropsychological testing.

Exclusion Criteria


EWB Measures

Cornell-Brown Scale for Quality of Life (CBS; Ready, Ott, Grace, & Fernandez, 2002) :
12-item versions of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) (Goldberg & Williams, 1988)
Quality of Life in Alzheimer’s Disease (QOL-AD; Logsdon, Gibbons, McCurry, & Teri, 2002) scales

Non-EWB Behavioral

Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)
Wechsler Memory Scale III (WMS-III)
Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease battery (CERAD)
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III (WAIS-III)
Boston Naming Test (BNT)
Western Aphasia Battery (WAB)
Trail Making Test (TMT)
Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB)

Physiological Measures


Brain IMaging Modality

Brain IMaging Paradigm


Brain Region/Circuit


Biological Measures


Other Neural Measures

Data Availability?


Data Avalability Details


Diagnostic Measures

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