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The effect of walking and vitamin B supplementation on quality of life in community-dwelling adults with mild cognitive impairment: a randomized, controlled trial

Contact Information


Marijke J. M. Chin A Paw, Email: ln.cmuv@wapanihc.m.

Quality of life, Aged, Exercise, Dietary supplements, Randomized controlled trial


Objectives: To examine the effect of walking and vitamin B supplementation on quality-of-life (QoL) in community-dwelling adults with mild cognitive impairment. Methods: One year, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Participants were randomized to: (1) twice-weekly, group-based, moderate-intensity walking program (n = 77) or a light-intensity placebo activity program (n = 75); and (2) daily vitamin B pills containing 5 mg folic acid, 0.4 mg B12, 50 mg B6 (n = 78) or placebo pills (n = 74). QoL was measured at baseline, after six and 12 months using the population-specific Dementia Quality-of-Life (D-QoL) to assess overall QoL and the generic Short-Form 12 mental and physical component scales (SF12-MCS and SF12-PCS) to assess health-related QoL. Results: Baseline levels of QoL were relatively high. Modified intention-to-treat analyses revealed no positive main intervention effect of walking or vitamin supplementation. In both men and women, ratings of D-QoL-belonging and D-QoL-positive affect subscales improved with 0.003 (P = 0.04) and 0.002 points (P = 0.06) with each percent increase in attendance to the walking program. Only in men, SF12-MCS increased with 0.03 points with each percent increase in attendance (P = 0.08). Conclusion: Several small but significant improvements in QoL were observed with increasing attendance to the walking program. No effect of vitamin B supplementation was observed.


van Uffelen, J. G., Chin A Paw, M. J., Hopman-Rock, M., & van Mechelen, W. (2007). The effect of walking and vitamin B supplementation on quality of life in community-dwelling adults with mild cognitive impairment: a randomized, controlled trial. Quality of life research : an international journal of quality of life aspects of treatment, care and rehabilitation, 16(7), 1137–1146.





Conent Area

Jannique G Z van Uffelen

EWB-Related Construct

(4) quality of life
(2)Life Satisfaction
(3) Positive Affect

Study Design

Species or Study Population

(5) RCT

Sex (%Female)


Age (Mean, SD)

75, 2.9

Younger Controls?


Longitudinal Data?


Sample Size



walking and vitamin B supplementation

Ethnicity (%white)

none stated (Netherlands)

Inclusion Criteria

1. Memory complaints (answer Yes to question ‘do you have memory complaints’, or at least twice sometimes at cognition scale of Strawbridge
2. Objective memory impairment; 10 WLT delayed recall ≤5 + percentage savings ≤ 100
3. Normal general cognitive functioning; TICS ≥ 19 + MMSE ≥ 24
4. Intact daily functioning: no report of disability in activities of daily living on GARS-scale, except on the item ‘taking care of feet and toe nails’
5. Absence of dementia; TICS ≥ 19 + MMSE ≥ 24
6. Being able to perform moderate intensity physical activity, without making use of walking devices, e.g., a rollator or a walking frame
7. Not using vitamin supplements/vitamin injections/drinks with dose of vitamin B6, B11 or B12 comparable to vitamin supplement given in intervention
8. Not suffering from epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, kidney disorder requiring haemodialysis, psychiatric impairment
9. Not suffering from depression as measured by the GDS (cut off ≤5)
10. Not using medication for rheumatoid arthritis or psoriasis interfering with vitamin supplement
11. No alcohol abuse (men < 21 consumptions a week, women < 15 consumptions a week)
12. Not currently living in a nursing home or on a waiting list for a nursing home

Exclusion Criteria

see inclusion

EWB Measures

Dementia Quality of Life questionnaire
generic Short Form 12 (SF12) : overall well-being

Non-EWB Behavioral


Physiological Measures


Brain IMaging Modality

Brain IMaging Paradigm


Brain Region/Circuit


Biological Measures


Other Neural Measures

Data Availability?


Data Avalability Details


Diagnostic Measures

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